Heat treatment

Image Heat treating (or heat treatment) is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve the desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment techniques include annealing, case hardening, precipitation strengthening, temperin... Read More

Clinical Chemistry Tests

Image Clinical Chemistry Tests Clinical chemistry refers to the biochemical analysis of body fluids. It uses chemical reactions to determine the levels of various chemical compounds in bodily fluids. Several simple chemical tests are used to detect and quantify different compounds in blood and urine, the most commonly tested specimens in clinical chemistry. Techniques such as spectrophotometry, immunoassays, and electrophoresis are also used in clinical chemistry to measure the concentration of substances such as glucose, lipids, enzymes, electrolytes, hormones, proteins, and ... Read More

Smelting

Image Smelting It is a process of applying heat to ore in order to extract a base metal. It is a form of extractive metallurgy. It is used to extract many metals from their ores, including silver, iron, copper, and other base metals. Smelting uses heat and a chemical reducing agent to decompose the ore, driving off other elements as gases or slag and leaving the metal base behind. The reducing agent is commonly a source of carbon, such as coke—or, in earlier times, charcoal. Smelting involves more than just melting the metal out of its ore. Most ores are the chemical compound of the metal a... Read More

Granulation

Image Granulation is the process of forming grains or granules from a powdery or solid substance, producing a granular material. It is applied in several technological processes in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Typically, granulation involves agglomeration of fine particles into larger granules, typically of size range between 0.2 and 4.0 mm depending on their subsequent use. Less commonly, it involves shredding or grinding solid material into finer granules or pellets. Granulation technics are basically of two types: ... Read More

Electrochemistry

Image Electrochemistry is the study of chemical processes that cause move to electrons. This movement of electrons is called electricity, When a chemical reaction is caused by an externally supplied current, as in electrolysis, or if an electric current is produced by a spontaneous chemical reaction as in a battery, it is called an electrochemical reaction. Chemical reactions which is being generated by movements of electrons from one element to another in a reaction known as an oxidation-reduction reaction. An electrochemical cell is a device that produces an electric current from ener... Read More

Waste Water Treatment Process

Image Chemical precipitation Chemical precipitation is the most common method for removing dissolved metals from wastewater solution containing toxic metals. To convert the dissolved metals into solid particle form, a precipitation reagent is added to the mixture. A chemical reaction, triggered by the reagent, causes the dissolved metals to form solid particles. Filtration can then be used to remove the particles from the mixture. How well the process works is dependent upon the kind of metal present, the concentration of the metal, and the kind of reagent used. In hydroxide precipitati... Read More

Drying

Image Drying refers to the process of removing water from any substance, even a liquid (which then becomes a "dry" liquid). Drying also applies to gases and solids. The chemical industry uses drying in sectors ranging from agricultural products and fine chemicals through plastics and paints. Methods vary with material and application. Gas drying A popular form of gas drying is air drying. Dry gas is essential in chemical processing because it precludes ice from forming in instrument air lines. In the past, ice formation in instrumentation has ... Read More

Biofuel

Image The transport sector faces a big energy challenge as it looks for more sustainable and diversified sources and with a lower environmental impact. Although electrification seems to be the future solution for light-duty engines, biofuels remain as a very interesting alternative in the midterm as well as a potential solution for medium and heavy-duty diesel applications. Recently, European institutions have agreed specific targets for the new Renewable Energy Directive including 14% of renewable energy in rail and road transport by 2030. There is growing interest toward the uptake by... Read More

Synthetic Polymers

Image Some molecules contain so many atoms (up to tens of thousands) that understanding their structure would seem to be an impossible task. By recognizing that many of these macromolecules exhibit recur-ring structural motifs, however, chemists have come to understand how these molecules are constructed and, further, how to synthesize them. These mol-ecules, called polymers, fall into two classes: natu-ral and synthetic. Natural polymers include many of the biomolecules that are essential to life: pro-teins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates among them. Synthetic polymers—most of which were... Read More

Traditional Medicine

Image According to the World Health Organization atlas (2002), “traditional medicine (TM)” refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge, and beliefs incorporating plant, animal, and mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, and manual techniques applied individually or in combination to treat, diagnose, and prevent illnesses or maintain wellbeing. While there is an increase in the use of TM worldwide, research in this area is inadequate, with serious difficulties in accepting the studies conducted. Some of the main reasons why the studies conducted are considered fl... Read More

Herbal Medicine

Image The rhizome of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis or chinensis, called Rhizoma Paridis, was a traditional Chinese medicine and has been used for the treatment of various diseases for thousands of years, including fractures, parotitis, snake bite, hemostasis, and abscess with remarkable effect in the clinic . Herba Epimedii is a famous Chinese edible herb with a long history of being used in complementary and alternative medicines in many countries. Herba Epimedii belongs to the genus ... Read More

HEPATOTOXICITY AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE AGENTS

Image The rhizome of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis or chinensis, called Rhizoma Paridis, was a traditional Chinese medicine and has been used for the treatment of various diseases for thousands of years, including fractures, parotitis, snake bite, hemostasis, and abscess with remarkable effect in the clinic . Herba Epimedii is a famous Chinese edible herb with a long history of being used in complementary and alternative medicines in many countries. Herba Epimedii belongs to the genus ... Read More

Clinical Toxicology: Current Research Trends

Image Journal of Clinical Toxicology strives to publish highest quality articles pertaining to clinical research and toxicology which are freely accessible to one and all. The scope of the journal encompasses topics including disease prevalence, risk factors, public health intervention outcomes as well as healthcare economics and clinical research topics including toxicology, toxicity, poisonous effects, adverse effects etc. In... Read More

Journal of Surgical Pathology and Diagnosis-Advances in Diagnosis

Image Journal of Surgical Pathology and Diagnosis-Advances in Diagnosis Journal of Surgical Pathology and Diagnosis is an open access journal and celebrating the 10thAnniversary, an esteemed journal which mainly deals with macroscopic and microscopic examination of surgical specimens for effective diagnosis of disease. Surgical specimens are of two categories, biopsies, and surgical resections. This journal of Surgical Pathology and ... Read More

Journal of Tissue Science and Engineering Accepts Manuscripts for Upcoming Issue

Image Journal of Tissue Science and Engineering completed 9 Years of its existence in the field of Tissue Science and research, and extends a very warm welcome to all the authors, researchers, editors and student to contribute their latest research findings as full length articles to this collaborative health journal. The journal is committed to serve its readers authors by adding the state of the art facilities to enhance the author’s scholarly visibility. Establ... Read More

International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications Announcing Hefty Discounts on Article Processing

Image The International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications is an open access Scientific Journal which mainly focuses on articles of Sensor Networks and Data Communications. The International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications come up with an opportunity to researchers and scientist to explore Data Communications. The Sensor Networks and Data Communications is of highest standards in terms of quality. The ... Read More